Two-phase Simulation of Well Control Methods for Gas Kicks in Case of Water and Oil-based Muds

Document Type : Research Paper


Sharif University of Technology


Kick occurrence is a possible event during a drilling process. It is required to be handled immediately using a well control method to avoid blowout, financial losses and damages to the drilling crew. Several methods including driller, wait and weight, and concurrent are applicable in the drilling industry to control a well during a kick incident. In this study, typical well control methods were simulated for both cases of water and oil-based muds, and essential parameters such as the required time were calculated. Additionally, for each well control approach, a mathematical algorithm was proposed to simulate the process. In case of oil-based mud, the flash calculation was utilized in each depth and time by considering the effect of kick fluid dissolution in drilling mud to improve the accuracy of control parameters. Based on the results, when oil-based mud is used for drilling, extra time is required to control the well due to kick fluid dissolution in the mud and extensive changes in the mud density. In order to improve the accuracy of the calculations, critical parameters including temperature changes in the well column, dynamic drilling hydraulics, and pressure drop were considered during a well control process. In addition, the simulation of the concurrent method is one of the study innovations because of mud density alternations especially when the mud becomes heavier by a non-linear or complicated mathematical function during the process.


Choe J., “Advanced Two-Phase Well Control Analysis,” Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 2001, 40(05).
Avelar C. S., Ribeiro P. R., and Sepehrnoori K., “Deepwater Gas Kick Simulation,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2009, 67(1), 13-22.
Omosebi A. O., Osisanya S. O., Chukwu G. A., and Egbon F., “Annular Pressure Prediction during Well Control,” In Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2012.
Marbun B. H. and Shidiq A. M., “Estimation of Annulus Pressure Fluids Kick for Vertical Well Using Moore Method and Integrated Numerical Simulation,” In North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2013.
An J., Lee K., and Choe J., “Well Control Simulation Model of Oil-based Muds for HPHT Wells,” In SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2015.
Feng J., Fu J., Chen P., Luo J., and et al., “An Advanced Driller›s Method Simulator for Deepwater Well Control,” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2016, 39, 131-140.
Sun G., Li S., Yu Z., Wang K., and et al., “Dynamic Simulation of Major Kick for an HP/HT Well in Western China,”In Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2016.
Mosti I., Morrell D., Anfinsen B. T., Vielma W. E., and et al., “Kick Tolerance and Frictional Pressure Losses, Added Safety or Added Risk?,” In SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2017.
Bourgoyne A. T., Millheim K. K., Chenevert M. E., and Young F. S., “Applied Drilling Engineering,” TX: Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, 1991.
Azar J. J. and Samuel G. R., “Drilling Engineering,” PennWell Books, 2007.
Austin E. H., “Drilling Engineering Handbook,” Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.
Baker R. and Fitzpatrick J., “Practical Well Control. Petroleum Extension Service,” University of Texas at Austin, 1998.
Watson D., Brittenham T., and Moore P. L., “Advanced Well Control,” Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2003.
Grace R. D., “Blowout and Well Control Handbook,” Gulf Professional Publishing, 2017.
Talaia M. A., “Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2007, 28, 264-268.
Viana F., Pardo R., Yánez R., Trallero J. L., and et al., “Universal Correlation for the Rise Velocity of Long Gas Bubbles in Round Pipes,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2003, 494, 379-98.
Date A. W., “Analytic Combustion: with Thermodynamics,” Chemical Kinetics and Mass Transfer, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Kim N. R., Ribeiro P. R., and Pessôa-Filho P. A., “PVT Behavior of Methane and Ester-based Drilling Emulsions,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2015, 135, 360-366.
McCain W. D., “The Properties of Petroleum Fluids,” PennWell Books, 1990.
Danesh A., “PVT and Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids,” Elsevier, 1998.
Xiang-Qi L. X. and Tao S. X., “Study on Two-phase Gas-liquid Flow during Gas Kick,” Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 2004, 1, 0-20.