Hydrocracking of Jojoba Oil for Green Fuel Production

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2 Benha University, Faculty Of Science, Department of Chemistry, Behna, Egypt


The fast depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves and the serious consideration of environmental issues make the implementation of sustainable energy sources a crucial issue worldwide. Biofuel derived from vegetable oils is receiving a great attention as one of the most suitable and logical alternatives of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of petroleum-like fractions from nonedible oil extracted from jojoba seeds is the main objective of this study.
Hydrocracking technique has been applied here, using a fixed bed high pressure flow reactor system and using zeolite as a catalyst. A series of experiments were carried out in the temperature ranges from 350-425oC at the pressure of 1.0-5.0 MPa, liquid hour space velocity (LHSV) of 1-5
hr-1, and H2 to oil feed ratio of 1600 l/l in order to elucidate the influence of operating conditions on the quantity and quality of the biofuel attained.

The major products obtained from hydrocracking of jojoba oil feedstock were organic liquid products contaminated with some water and gases .The yield and conversion were estimated. The cracked products were analyzed and compared with that of the feed via FTIR, GC, ASTM distillation, and some routine testes. The organic liquid layers were fractionated to gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil. The results reveal that the main constituent lies in the gasoline range, which was favored at high temperature and pressure and low LHSV.


      [1]     Kumar P., Barrett D. M., Delwiche M. J., and Stroeve P., “Methods for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Efficient Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2009, 48, 3713-3729.
      [2]     Patil P. D., Gude V. G., and Deny S., “Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas, Waste Cooking and Camelina Stiva Oils,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2009, 48 (24), 10850-10856.
      [3]     Huzayyin A. S., Badawy A. H., Rady M. A., and Dawood A., “Experimental Evaluation of Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Using Blends of Jojoba Oil and Diesel Fuel,” Energy Conversion and Management, 2004, 45, 2093-2112.
      [4]     Hancsok J., Krar M., kasaza T., Kovacs S., et al., “Investigation of Hydrotreating of Vegetable Oil-gas Oil Mixtures,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 2011, 5, 500-507.
      [5]     Priecel P., Capek L., Kubicka D., Homola F., et al., “The Role of Alumina Support in the Deoxygenation of Rapeseed Oil Over NiMo-alumina Catalysts,” Catalysis Today, 2011, 176, 409-412.
      [6]     Pinzi S., Garcia I. L., Lopez-Gimenez F. J., Luque de Castro M. D., et al., “The Ideal Vegetable Oil-based Biodiesel Composition: A Review of Social, Economical and Technical Implications,” Energy & Fuels, 2009, 23(5), 2325-2341.
      [7]     Lapuerta M., Fernandez J. R., Oliva F., and Canoiva L., “Biodiesel from Low- grade Animal Fats: Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions,” Energy & Fuels, 2009, 23(1), 121-129.
      [8]     Radwan M. S., Ismail M. A., Elfeky S. M. S. and Abu-Elyazeed O. S. M., “Jojoba Methyl Ester as a Diesel Fuel Substitute Preparation and Characterization,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 2007, 27, 314-322.
      [9]     Einloft S., Magalhaes T. O., Donato A., Dullius J., et al., “Biodiesel from Rice Bran Oil: Transesterification by Tin Compounds,” Energy & Fuels, 2008, 22, 671-674.
    [10]    Knothe G., Cermak S. C., and Evangelista R. L., “Cuphea Oil as Source of Biodiesel with Improved Fuel Properties Caused by High Content of Methyl Decanoate,” Energy & Fuels, 2009, 23, 1743-1747.
    [11]    Mahamuni N. N. and Adewuyi Y. G., “Optimization of the Synthesis of Biodiesel via Ultrasound-enhanced Base-catalyzed Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using a Multifrequency Ultrasonic Reactor,” Energy & Fuels, 2009, 23, 2757-2766.
    [12]    Ooi Y., Zakaria R., Mohamed A., and Bhatia S., “Catalytic Conversion of Palm Oil-based Fatty Acid Mixture to Liquid Fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 2004, 27, 477-484.
    [13]    Belkacemi K. and Hamoudi S., “Law Trans and Saturated Vegetable Oil Hydrogenation over Nanostructured Pd/Silica Catalysts: Process Parameters and Mass-transfer Features Effects,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2009, 48, 1081-1089.
    [14]    Canoira L., Alcantara R., Garcia-Martinez M. J., and Carrasco J., “Biodiesel from Jojoba Oil-wax: Transesterification with Methanol and Properties as a Fuel,” Biomass and Bioenergy, 2006, 30, 76-81.
    [15]    Yang Y., Wang Q., Zhang X., Wang L., et al., “Hydrotreating of C18 Fatty Acids to Hydrocarbons Sulphided NiW/SiO2-AL2O3,” Fuel Processing Technology, 2013, 116, 165-174.
    [16]    Jhan M., Sinha A., and Agnihotri P., “Hydroprocessing of Jatropha Oil to Produce Green Fuels,” International Journal of Chem. Tech. Research, 2013, 5(2), 765-770.
    [17]    Tamunaidu P. and Bhatia S., “Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil for the Production of Biofuels: Optimization Studies,” Bioresource Technology, 2007, 98, 3593-3601.
    [18]    Corma A., Huber G., Sauvanaudm L., and Connor P.O., “Processing Biomass- derived Oxygenates in the Oil Refinery: Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Reaction Pathways and Role of Catalyst,” Journal of Catalysis, 2007, 247, 307-327.
    [19]    Ooi Y., Zakaria R., Mohamed, A., and Bhatia S. “Catalytic Cracking of used Palm Oil and Palm Oil Fatty Acids Mixture for the Production of Liquid Fuel: Kinetic
Modeling,” Energy & Fuels, 2004, 18, 1555-1561.
    [20]    Sankaranarayanan T., Banu M., Pandurangan A., and Sivasanker S., “Hydroprocessing of Sun Flower Oil Gas Oil Blends Over Sulfide Ni-Mo-AL-zeolite Beta Composites,” Bioresource Technology, 2011, 102, 10717-10723.
    [21]    Hancsok J., Krar M., Magyar S., Boda L., et al., “Investigation of the Production of High Cetane Number Bio Gas Oil from Pre-hydrogenated Vegetable Oils Over Pt/HZSM-22/Al2O3,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2007, 101, 148-152.
    [22]    Egeberg R., Michaelsen N., Skyum L., and Zeuthen P., “Hydrotreating in the Production of Green Diesel,” Digital Refining, 2010, 1-11.
    [23]    Huber G. W., Oconnor P., and Corma A., “Processing Biomass in Conventional Oil Refineries: Production of High Quality Diesel by Hydrotreating Vegetable Oil in Heavy Vacuum Oil Mixtures,” Applied Catalysis A: General, 2007, 329, 120-129.