Experimental Data of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle at Reservoir Condition: Influence of Tuned Water

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Center for Petroleum Studies (CEPETRO), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil

2 Repsol Sinopec Brasil

10.22078/jpst.2020.4042.1645

Abstract

Tuned water (brine with designed compositions) has proved to influence the oil recovery factor. One of the hypotheses supported to understand this technique involves decreasing the oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) and the rock’s wettability alteration, indicated by contact angle (CA) measurements. The literature lacks experimental data regarding the interfacial tension in oil-brine and contact angle in oil-brine-carbonate systems at reservoir conditions considering pressure and temperature, and reservoir rocks. The objective of this study is to obtain new data, at 5,000 psi and 63 °C, on brines with different concentrations. The experiments were carried out in three steps. First, the concentration of sodium chloride was varied 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 times which is the quantity in a seawater sample. After identifying the best concentration of NaCl (75% of NaCl in original seawater), steps were taken to modify the amount of magnesium 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times, in the brine. Finally, the same proportions of sulfate were tested. The behavior of IFT and CA towards the function of these various concentrations was also investigated and discussed. Furthermore, the results reveal that the behavior of IFT was not predictable, as the salinity increases at times and decreases at others. This property probably depends more on the compounds in the brine than on the total salinity. Also, the images used to gauge the CA show a greater tendency toward water-wet conditions when the sulfate concentration decreases,and when the magnesium concentration decreases, the images present the opposite effect .

Keywords


  1. Yousef A, Al-Saleh S, Al-Kaabi A, Al-Jawfi M (2011) Laboratory investigation of the impact of injection-water salinity and ionic content on oil recovery from carbonate Reservoirs, SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, 578-593. ##
  2. Al-Attar HH, Mahmoud MY, Zekri AY, Almehaideb R, Ghannam M (2013) Low-salinity flooding in a selected carbonate reservoir: experimental approach, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 3: 139-149. ##
  3. Klinger O., Peralta A, Ruidiaz E, Trevisan, O (2018) Oil recovery in carbonate reservoir rocks by reducing total salinity in injection water for core flooding tests, Rio Oil and Gas Expo and Conference, IBP1732-18. ##
  4. Vijapurapu CS, Rao DN (2004) Compositional effects of fluids on spreading, adhesion and wettability in porous media, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 241: 335-342. ##
  5. Lashkarbolooki M, Ayatollahi S (2016) Effect of asphaltene and resin on interfacial tension of acid crude oil/sulfate aqueous solution: experimental study, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 414: 149-155. ##
  6. Honarvar B, Rahimi A, Safari M, Khajehahmadi S, Karimi M (2020) Smart water effects on a crude oil-brine-carbonate rock (CBR) system: further suggestions on mechanisms and conditions, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 299, Article 112173. ##
  7. Rostami P, Mehraban MF, Sharifi M, Dejam M, Ayatollahi, S (2019) “Effect of water salinity on oil/brine interfacial behaviour during low salinity waterflooding: a mechanistic study, Journal of Petroleum, 5: 367-374. ##
  8. Nasralla RA, Nasr-El-Din HA (2014) Impact of cation type and concentration in injected brine on oil recovery in sandstone reservoirs, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 122: 384-395. ##
  9. Kakati A, Sangwai JS (2017) Effect of monovalent and divalent salts on the interfacial tension of pure hydrocarbon-brine systems relevant for low salinity water flooding, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 157: 1106-1114. ##
  10. Sheng JJ (2014) Critical review of low-salinity waterflooding, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 120: 216-224. ##
  11. Moeini F, Hemmati-Sarapardeh A, Ghazanfari MH, Masihi M, Ayatollahi S (2014) Towards mechanistic understanding of heavy crude oil/brine interfacial tension: the roles of salinity, Temperature and Pressure, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 375: 191–200. ##
  12. Dehghan AA, Masihi M, Ayatollahi S (2015) Phase behavior and interfacial tension evaluation of a newly designed surfactant on heavy oil displacement efficiency; effects of salinity, wettability, and capillary pressure, Fluid Phase Equilibria, 396: 20-27. ##
  13. Dehghan AA, Jadaly A, Ayatollahi S, Masihi M (2017) Acidic heavy oil recovery using a new formulated surfactant accompanying alkali–polymer in high salinity brines, Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 20, 3: 725-733. ##
  14. Shojaei MJ, Ghazanfari MH, Masihi M (2015) Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves for low salinity water flooding in sandstone rocks, Journal of Natural Gas Science & Engineering, 25: 30-38. ##
  15. Maaref S, Ayatollahi S, Rezaei N, Masihi M (2017) The effect of dispersed phase salinity on water-in- oil emulsion flow performance: a micromodel study, Journal: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56, 15: 4549-4561. ##
  16. Safavi MS, Masihi M, Safekordi AA, Ayatollahi S, Sadeghnejad S (2019) Effect of SO4-2 ion exchanges and initial water saturation on low salinity water flooding (LSWF) in the dolomite reservoir rocks, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 1-15. ##
  17. International Association For The Properties Of Water And Steam, IAPWS R1-76 (2014), Revised Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance. ##
  18. Berry JD, Neeson MJ, Dagastine RR, Chan DYC, Tabor RF (2015) Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 454: 226-237. ##
  19. Yang J, Yu K, Zuo YY (2017) Accuracy of axisymmetric drop shape analysis in determining surface and interfacial tensions, Journal of Langmuir, 33: 8914-8923. ##
  20. Silva CM (2018) Interfacial tension and contact angle in oil-rock-brine systems at high temperature and pressure, (in Portuguese), Master thesis, DECivil, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Portugal. ##
  21. Springer N, Korsbech U, Aage HK (2003) Resistivity index measurement without the porous plate: a desaturation technique based on evaporation produces uniform water saturation profiles and more reliable results for tight north sea chalk, International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, SCA 459-470. ##