Ranking of Candidates for Underground Gas Storage Structures under Uncertainties Using Flow Simulation: West of Iran as a Case study

Document Type : Review Paper


Reservoir Studies Research Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran, Iran


 Underground gas storage is the primary means of managing fluctuations in supply and demand, and it is an essential component of an efficient and reliable interstate natural gas transmission and distribution network. Therefore, iden­tifying gas storage capacity, injectivity, and containment is very important in every underground gas storage (UGS) project. Already, a giant scheme in Iran for identifying, ranking, and certifying UGS reservoirs has been carried out through the country. In this study, a methodology for a fast screening and risk ranking of candidate reservoirs, which in principle does not discard the green and slightly small reservoirs with few wells, is demonstrated. First, four structures out of more than twenty given structures were selected according to the client’s comments. Then, the performance of these candidate structures as the main focus of this study was determined. For performance analysis, the flow simulation method that can be characterized by the uncertainty conditions influencing deliverability behavior was applied. Based on the available data, the main uncertainty parameters (static, dynamic, and economic) affecting capacity, injectivity, and containment were determined. Then, based on designing many wells as a producer and as injectors, the distribution probability of deliverability of structure under different uncertainty was identified. Finally, the performance and the risk of each candidate structure were analyzed and compared, and then they could be ranked and proposed for further detailed implementation.


  1. Arinkoola A O, Onuh H M, Ogbe, D O (2016) Quantifying uncertainty in infill well placement using numerical simulation and experimental design: case study. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and production Technology, 6(2): 201-215. ##
  2. Anyadiegwu C I C, Anyanwu E E, Obah B, Ogueke N V (2014) Performance analysis of depleted oil reservoirs for underground gas storage, Asia pacific, Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2(1): 99-114. ##
  3. Asrizal M, Hadi J, Bahar A, and Sihombing J M (2006) Uncertainty Quantification by using Stochastic approach in Pore Volume Calculation, Wayang Windu Geothermal Field, W. Java, Indonesia. Thirty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, California, January 30-February 1. ##
  4. Azin R, Nasiri A, Jodeyri A (2008) Underground gas storage in a partially depleted gas reservoir. Oil and Gas Science and Technology--Revue de l’IFP, 63(6): 691-703. ##
  5. Bennion D B, Thomas F B, Ma T (2000) Detailed protocol for the screening and selection of gas Storage reservoirs, SPE/CERI gas technology symposium. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Calgary, Canada, January 1. ##
  6. Caumon G, Caers J K (2004) Assessment of global uncertainty for early appraisal of hydrocarbon fields, SPE 89943, Houston USA, September 26-29. ##
  7. Charles T, Guéméné J M, Corre B, Vincent G, Dubrule O (2001) Experience with the quantification of subsurface uncertainties. SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Jan 1. ##
  8. Colina J Michael M (2007) Integrated Static Model Uncertainty Analysis of the Lower Ben Nevis I Reservoir at the Hibernia Field, Flow of Ideas, Hydrocarbons and Business, 483-486. ##
  9. Corre B, Thore P, Feraudy V, Vincent G (2002) Integrated uncertainty assessment for project evaluation and risk analysis, In 64th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, May 27. ##
  10. Craft B C and Hawkins M F (2015) Applied petroleum reservoir engineering (3rd ed.), Pearson Education, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1-493. ##
  11. Faisal F, AL-Thani J (2005) Risk and uncertainty modeling in the oil and gas industry, In SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Bahrain. SPE93129, March 12-15. ##
  12. Yong H, Wenxiang H, Yanli Z, Bincheng G, Zhaopu G (2019) Uncertainty, sensitivity analysis and optimization of a reservoir geological model, Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 1-11. ##
  13. Joaquim J, Serge van Gessel, Rory D, Gijs R, Remco G (2019) Assessment of underground energy storage potential to support the energy transition in the Netherlands, Special Topic: Energy Transition. ##
  14. Khamehchi E, Yousefi S. H, Sanaei A (2013) Selection of the best efficient method for natural gas storage at high capacities using TOPSIS method, Gas Processing Journal, 1(1): 9-18. ##
  15. Paulo Carlos S. F, Marcelo C. M, Pedro G (2005) Uncertainty modeling of the gas volume of Manatifield: the challenge of taking into account a ‘stochastic’ unconformity, SPE 95087, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 20-23. ##
  16. Sahni A (2003) Case studies of uncertainty analysis in the seismic to reservoir simulation workflow, SPE 84188, January 1. ##
  17. Stopa J, Kosowski P (2006) Factors influencing the costs of underground gas storage, Polityka Energetyczna, Wydawnictwo IGSMiE PAN. ##
  18. Watheq J A M, Dandia N R (2019) Geological and production uncertainty assessments of the cyclic- assisted gravity drainage EOR process: a case study from South Rumalia oil field, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 9(2): 1457-1474. ##