Evaluation of Faults Reactivation Tenacity in One of the Low-Pressure SW Iranian Carbonate Reservoirs: An IOR Viewpoint

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Petroleum Geology Department, Upstream Oil Industry Research and Development Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran, Iran

2 Petroleum Geology Dept. Center for Upstream Sci. & Tech. Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)

3 Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 School of Mining Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


 In case of a decrease in reservoir pressure, injection projects are inevitable that the desired production rate is maintained. Moreover, one of the key issues in injection operations is optimum injection pressure determination to prevent fault reactivation . The aim of this study is to evaluate fault reactivation tenacity in one of SW Iranian oil fields at different injection stages. Two main steps in this study are geomechanical modeling and fault extraction. In addition, fullset data, image log, dipole sonic log, and MDT pressure points were used to construct the geomechanical model. Also, 3-D seismic data were used for fault extraction and characterization. Ultimately, according to the geomechanical model, the stress state is strike-slip normal, and the maximum horizontal stress direction is toward NE-SW. Furthermore, 18 faults have been extracted using seismic data, which their strikes are often NW-SE. In addition, the faults are inactive in the present-day stress state, but the first fault will be reactivated with a 33 MPa increase in pore pressure.


  1. Morris A, Ferrill D A, Brent Henderson D B (1996) Slip-tendency analysis and fault reactivation. Geology 24: 275-278. ##
  2. Zoback M D, (2010) Reservoir geomechanics (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press 1-445. ##
  3. Salemi H, Rezagholilou A, Asadi S, Iglauer S, Sarmadivaleh M (2017) Poroelastic effects of pore pressure-stress coupling on fault reactivation risks during gas injection. Presented at the 51st US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association. ##
  4. Wiprut D, Zoback M D (2002) Fault reactivation, leakage potential, and hydrocarbon column heights in the northern North Sea. Norwegian Petroleum Society Special Publications 11: 203-219. ##
  5. Hawkes C D, McLellan P J, Bachu S (2005) Geomechanical factors affecting geological storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 44: 52-61. ##
  6. Langhi L, Zhang Y, Gartrell A, Underschultz J, Dewhurst D (2010) Evaluating hydrocarbon trap integrity during fault reactivation using geomechanical three-dimensional modeling: An example from Timor Sea, Australia. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 94: 567-591. ##
  7. Zoback M D, Gorelick S M (2012) Earthquake triggering and large scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109:10164-10168. ##
  8. Rutqvist J, Rinaldi A P, Cappa F, Moridis G J (2013) Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 107: 31-44. ##
  9. Rutqvist J, Birkholzer J, Cappa F, Tsang C F (2007) Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow and geomechanical fault-slip analysis. Energy Conversion and Management 48(6): 1798-1807. ##
  10. Safi R, Agarwal R K, Banerjee S (2016) Numerical simulation and optimization of CO2 utilization for enhanced oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Chemical Engineering Science 144: 30–38. ##
  11. Tambach T J, Koenen M, Wasch L J, Van Bergen F (2015) Geochemical evaluation of CO2 injection and containment in a depletedgas field. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 32: 61–80. ##
  12. Perera M, Gamage R, Rathnaweera T, Ranathunga A, Koay A, Choi X (2016) A review of CO2-enhanced oil recovery with a simulated sensitivity analysis. Energies 9: 481. ##
  13. Vilarrasa V, Makhnenko R, and Gheibi S (2016) Geomechanical analysis of the influence of CO2 injection location on fault stability. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering 8: 805–818. ##
  14. Ren B, Duncan I J (2019) Reservoir simulation of carbon storage associated with CO2 EOR in residual oil zones, San Andres formation of West Texas, Permian Basin, USA. Energy 167: 391–401. ##
  15. Haro HAV, Paula Gomes M S, Rodrigues L G (2018) Numerical analysis of carbon dioxide injection into a high permeability layer for CO2-EOR projects. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 171: 164–174. ##
  16. Keating E, Bacon D, Carroll S, Mansoor K, Sun Y, Zheng L, Harp D, Dai Z (2016) Applicability of aquifer impact models to support decisions at CO2 sequestration sites. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 52: 319–330. ##
  17. Ganguli S S, Vedanti N, Dimri V P (2016) 4D reservoir characterization using well log data for feasible CO2-enhanced oil recovery at Ankleshwar, Cambay Basin-A rock physics diagnostic and modeling approach. Journal of Applied Geophysics 135: 111–121. ##
  18. Rodosta T D, Litynski J T, Plasynski S I, Hickman S, Frailey S, Myer L (2011) Site selection and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations. Energy Procedia 4: 4664-4671. ##
  19. Vilarrasa V, Carrera J, Olivella S (2013) Hydromechanical characterization of CO2 injection sites. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 19: 665–677. ##
  20. Colucci F, Guandalini R, Macini P, Mesini E, Moia F, Savoca D (2016) A feasibility study for CO2 geological storage in Northern Italy. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 55: 1–14. ##
  21. Dai Z, Zhang Y, Bielicki J, Amooie M. A, Zhang M, Yang C, Zou Y, Ampomah W, Xiao T, Jia W, Middleton R (2018) Heterogeneity-assisted carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments. Applied Energy 225: 876–883. ##
  22. Colucci F, Guandalini R, Macini P, Mesini E, Moia F, Savoca D (2016) A feasibility study for CO2 geological storage in Northern Italy. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 55: 1–14. ##
  23. Dai Z, Viswanathan H, Fessenden-Rahn J, Middleton R, Pan F, Jia W, Lee S Y, McPherson B, Ampomah W, Grigg R (2014) Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Energy Procedia 63: 7685-7693. ##
  24. Keating E, Bacon D, Carroll S, Mansoor K, Sun Y, Zheng L, Harp D, Dai Z (2016) Applicability of aquifer impact models to support decisions at CO2 sequestration sites. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 52: 319-330. ##
  25. Ampomah W, Balch R S, Cather M, Will R, Gunda D, Dai Z, Soltanian M R (2017) Optimum design of CO2 storage and oil recovery under geological uncertainty.Applied Energy 195: 80-92. ##
  26. Amiri M, Lashkaripour G R, Ghabezloo S, Moghaddas N H, Tajareh M H (2019) Mechanical earth modeling and fault reactivation analysis for CO2-enhanced oil recovery in Gachsaran oil field, south-west of Iran.Environmental Earth Sciences 78: 112. ##
  27. Darvish H, Nouri-Taleghani M, Shokrollahi A, Tatar A, (2015) Geo-mechanical modeling and selection of suitable layer for hydraulic fracturing operation in an oil reservoir (south west of Iran). Journal of African Earth Sciences 111: 409-420. ##
  28. Bozorgi E, Javani D, Rastegarnia M (2016) Development of a mechanical earth model in an Iranian off-shore gas field. Journal of Mining and Environment 7(1): 37-46. ##
  29. Kidambi T, Kumar G S (2016) Mechanical Earth Modeling for a vertical well drilled in a naturally fractured tight carbonate gas reservoir in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 141: 38-51. ##
  30. Aghajanpour A, Fallahzadeh S H, Khatibi S, Hossain M M, Kadkhodaie A (2017) Full waveform acoustic data as an aid in reducing uncertainty of mud window design in the absence of leak-off test. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 45: 786-796. ##
  31. Plumb R, Edwards S, Pidcock G, Lee D, Stacey B, (2000) The mechanical earth model concept and its application to high-risk well construction projects. In IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Society of Petroleum Engineers. ##
  32. Rutqvist J, Cappa F, Rinaldi A P, Godano M (2014) Modeling of induced seismicity and ground vibrations associated with geologic CO2 storage, and assessing their effects on surface structures and human perception.International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 24: 64-77. ##
  33. Niu Z, Li Q, Wei X, Li X, Ma J (2017) Numerical investigation of slippage characteristics of normal and reverse faults under fluid injection and production.Environmental Earth Sciences 76(14): 502.
  34. Motiei H, (1993) Stratigraphy of Zagros, Treatise on the Geology of Iran (1st ed.). Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran (GSI). 151: In Persian. ##
  35. Abdollahie-Fard I, Braathen A, Mokhtari M, Alavi S A (2006) Interaction of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and the Arabian-type, deepseated folds in the Abadan Plain and the Dezful Embayment, SW Iran. Petroleum Geoscience 12: 347–362. ##
  36. Motiei H (2010) An Introduction to Zagros Petroleum Reservoirs Evaluation, (for geologist) (1st ed.). Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration of Iran (GSI) 2: 681, In Persian. ##
  37. Nairn A E M, Alsharhan A S (1997)  Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East. Elsevier. ##
  38. Assadi A, Honarmand J, Moallemi S A, Abdollahie-Fard I (2016) Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Sarvak Formation in an oil field in the Abadan Plain, SW Iran. Facies 62(4): 1-22. ##
  39. Ezati M, Azizzadeh M, Riahi M A, Fattahpour V, Honarmand J (2018) Characterization of micro-fractures in carbonate Sarvak reservoir, using petrophysical and geological data, SW Iran. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 170: 675-695. ##
  40. Christian L (1997) Cretaceous Subsurface Geology of the Middle East Region. GeoArabia 2: 239-256.
  41. Fjaer E, Holt R M, Raaen A M, Risnes R, Horsrud P (2008) Petroleum related rock mechanics (2nd ed.), Developments in Petroleum Science. Elsevier 53: 1-483. ##
  42. Zhang J (2011) Pore pressure prediction from well logs: Methods, modifications, and new approaches. Earth-Science Reviews 108(1): 50-63. ##
  43. Eaton B. A (1975) The equation for geopressure prediction from well logs. Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, Dallas, Texas. ##
  44. Jaeger J C, Cook N G (1969) Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics. Methuen, London, New York: Barnes and Noble 593. ##
  45. Hillis R (2000) Pore pressure/stress coupling and its implications for seismicity. Exploration Geophysics 31(2): 448-454. ##
  46. Streit J E, Hillis R R (2004) Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock. Energy 29(9-10): 1445-1456. ##