Effects of ZSM-5 Preparation Conditions on Textural Properties and Catalytic Cracking of n-Hexane

Document Type: Research Paper


1 School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun, China

2 China National Petroleum Corporation Fushun Petrochemical Company Detergent Chemical Plant, Fushun, China



In this study, the effects of crystallization temperature, crystallization time, and pH value on the textural properties of synthetic ZSM-5 were investigated by the orthogonal test method. Furthermore, the effects of ZSM-5 catalysts synthesized under different preparation conditions on their reactivity during catalytic cracking were evaluated. Moreover, the results have shown that the three factors that affect the ZSM-5 synthesis are in the following order: crystallization temperature > crystallization time > pH value. In addition, the optimal conditions for synthesizing ZSM-5 catalysts were crystallization temperature of 170 °C, crystallization time of 48 h, and pH of 11. Furthermore, under these conditions, the specific surface area, pore-volume, and acidity of the synthetic zeolite were moderate, and the hydrothermal stability was ideal. Finally, when the optimal conditions were applied to the catalytic cleavage of n-hexane, the synthesized zeolite exhibited good activity and stability.


Feng M., Zhou X., and Li C., “Catalytic Cracking Performance of K/ZSM-5 in n-hexane,” Journal of Applied Chemical Industry, 2017, 46, 430.
Chaogang X. and Yongcan G., “Advances in DCC Process and Catalyst for Propylene Production from Heavy Oils,” China Petroleum Processing and Petrochemical Technology, 2008, 13, 1-5.
Feng L., Yi X., and Junying Li., “Synthesis, Characterization and n hexane Catalytic Cracking Activity of Zinc-substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves (ZnAPO-5),” Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology, 2008, 61, 2936.
Song J. H., Chen P., and Kim S. H., “Catalytic Cracking of n-hexane over MoO2 ,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 2002, 184, 197-202.
Yong W., Yokoi T., and Namba S., “Improvement of Catalytic Performance of MCM-22 in the Cracking of n-hexane by Controlling the Acidic Property,” Journal of Catalysts, 2016, 333, 17-28.
Farzi G., “Development of a New Kinetic Model for Methanol to Propylene Process on Mn/H-ZSM-5 catalyst,” Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 2014, 28(1), 53-63. 
Mohiuddin E., Isa Y. M., and Mdleleni M. M., “Synthesis of ZSM-5 from Impure and Beneficiated Grahamstown Kaolin: Effect of Kaolinite Content, Crystallization Temperatures and Time,” Applied. Clay Science, 2016, 119, 213-221.
Yaripour F., Shariatinia Z., and Sahebdelfar S., “Conventional Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured H-ZSM-5 Catalysts Using Various Templates for Light Olefins Production from Methanol,” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2015, 22, 260-269.
Ibraheem O. A., Tarek M. S., and Mohamed S. T., “Encapsulation of Ferro- and Ferricyanide Complexes inside ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesized from Rice Straw: Implications for Synthesis of Prussian Blue Pigment,” Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2013, 140, 81-88.
Biligetu T., Wang Y., and Nishitoba T., “Al Distribution and Catalytic Performance of ZSM-5 Zeolites Synthesized with Various Alcohols,” Journal of Catalysis, 2017, 353, 1-10.
Sazmal E. B. A., “The Effect of Crystallization Time and Temperature on Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolite Nax from Bongawan Kaolin,” Journal of International Engineering and Technology, 2016, 13, 33-39.
Feng C., Xiaoping J., and Tairong K., “Polyelectrolyte/mesoporous Silica Hybrid Materials for the High Performance Multiple-detection of pH Value and Temperature,” Journal of Polymer Chemistry, 2015, 6, 3529-3536.
Song T., Chen Z., and He H., “Orthogonal Design Study on Factors Affecting the Diameter of Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Nanofibers during Electrospinning,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2015, 132, 1-6.
Laisuo S., Jianbo Z., and Caijuan W., “Identifying Main Factors of Capacity Fading in Lithium Ion Cells Using Orthogonal Design of Experiments,” Journal of Applied Energy, 2016, 163, 201-210.
Parvaneh N. P., Darush S., and Aligholi N., “Study of M-ZSM-5 Nanocatalysts (M:Cu, Mn, Fe, Co) for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Process Optimization by Taguchi Method,” Journal of Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2015, 23, 1647-1654.
Tong M., Zubao G., and Bing L., “Difference of Acid Characters and Catalytic Cracking Performance between ZSM-5 Zeolites Synthesized with Various Templates,” CIESC Journal, 2016, 67, 3374.
Noor P., Khanmohammadi M. R., Roozbehani B., Yaripour F., and et al., “Introduction of Table Sugar as a Soft Second Template in ZSM-5 Nanocatalyst and its Effect on Product Distribution and Catalyst Lifetime in Methanol to Gasoline Conversion,” Journal of Energy and Chemistry, 2018, 27, 582-590.
Zhu G., Wang Z., and Huo X., “Experimental and Numerical Investigation into Axial Compressive Behavior of Thin-walled Structures Filled with Foams and Composite Skeleton,” International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 2017, 122, 104-119.
Maihom T., Pantu P., and Tachakritikul C., “Effect of the Zeolite Nanocavity on the Reaction Mechanism of n-Hexane Cracking: A Density Functional Theory Study,” Journal of  Physics and Chemistry, 2010, 114, 7850-7856.
Wenwen L., Dangguo C, and Fengqu C., “Study on Catalytic Cracking Reaction of Different Structure Alkanes,” Industrial Catalysis Journal, 2012, 20, 44.
Yajun J., Yunpeng Liu, and Honghui Y., “Research Progress on Anti-carbon Deposition of ZSM-5 Hydrocarbon Fuel Cracking Catalyst,” Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2017, 36, 4445.
Liangcheng A., Xuli W., and Zhang K., “Discussion on the Influencing Factors of Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZSM-5 Catalyst,” Chemical Engineering and Equipment, 2014, 2, 82.
Hodoshima S., Motomiya A., and Wakamatsu S., “Catalytic Cracking of Light-naphtha over MFI-zeolite/metal-oxide Composites for Efficient Propylene Production,” International Journal of Chemistry Research (IJCR), 2015, 41, 9615-9626.
Corma A., Ghrib Y., and Martínez T. J., “Synthesis of Cocrystallized USY/ZSM-5 Zeolites from Kaolin and its Use as Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts,” Catalysis Science and Technology, 2017, 10, 1039.