A NEW GAS DIFFUSION ELECTRODE (GDE) WITH A BETTER O2 REDUCTION ELECTROCATALYSTS WITH VERY LOW PT CONTENTS VIA NANO-SIZED PT-COATED NAFION

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Energy Research Center, Renewable Energy Department, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box 14665-1998, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In the present study, a new gas diffusion electrode (GDE) (based on Pt/Nafion membrane) is fabricated. The electrochemical results show that the new GDE has the highest electrochemical activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) among the three electrodes. The SEM and XRD findings show that a platinum layer can be attached to Nafion membrane closely and firmly with a strong peak corresponding to (111) crystalline face. The results illustrate that placing a Pt monolayer on a Nafion membrane is an attractive way of designing better O2 reduction electrocatalysts with very low Pt contents. Under optimum conditions, Tafel slope, exchange current density (i0), and charge transfer resistance (Rct) are obtained to be respectively equal to 85 mV dec-1, 2×10-3 A, and 8 Ω. For this electrode, the platinum particle size is 4 nm.

Keywords


[1] Antolin E., “Recent Developments in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Electrodes”, J. Appl. Electrochem. 2004, 34, 563-576.

[2] Rajalakshmi N., Hojin R., Dhathathreyan K. S., “Platinum Catalysed Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells-Higher Performance”, Chem. Eng. J. 2004, 102, 241-247.

[3] Dong-Hoon S., Raj Kishore S., Yong-Gun S., Hansung K., “Preparation of Pt/zeolite-Nafion Composite Membranes for Self-Humidifying Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells”, J. of Power Sources. 2007, 165, 733-738.

[4] Smith, B., Sridhar, S., Khan, A. A., “Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications”, J. of Memb. Sci. 2005, 259, 10-26.

[5] Sanjeev M., Rao, Yangchuan X., “Simulation of Nanostructured Electrodes for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells”. J. of Power Sources. 2008, 185, 1094-1100.

[6] Zhang J., Vukmirovic M. B., Sasaki K., Uribe F., and Adzic, R. R., “Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction: Effect of Substrate, and Long-term Stability”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 2005, 70, 513-525.

[7] Hexiang Z., Huamin Zh., Gang L., Yongmin L., Jingwei H., and Baolian Y., “A Novel Non-Noble Electrocatalyst for PEM Fuel Cell Based on Molybdenum Nitride” Electro-chemistry Communications. 2006, 8 707-712.

[8] Lister S. and Mclean G., “PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes” J. Power Sources. 2004, 130, 61-67.

[9] Bennett M. D. and Leo D. J., “Manufacture and Characterization of Ionic Polymer Transducers Employing Non-precious Metal Electrodes”, Smart Mater. Struct. 2003, 12, 424-436.

[10] Dong-Hoon S., Raj Kishore S., Yong-Gun S., Hansung K., “Preparation of Pt/Zeolite–Nafion Composite Membranes for Self-Humidifying Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells”. J. of Power Sources. 2007, 165, 733-738.

[11] Sanjeev M. R., Yangchuan X., “Simulation of Nanostructured Electrodes for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells”, J. of Power Sources. 2008, 185, 1094-1100.

[12] Cicero W. B. B., Lei Zh., Hansan L., Kunchan L., Aldalea L. B., Haijiang W., Jiujun Zh., “A Review of Heat-treatment Effects on Activity and Stability of PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction”, J. of Power Sources. 2007, 173, 891-908.

[13] Koslov Alexander S., Palaniamy, T., Narasimhan, D., “Electroless Autocatalytic Platinum Plating”. United States Patent 2002, 6391477.

[14]. Liang Z. X., Zhao T. S., “A new DMFC Anode Structure Consisting of Platinum Nanowires Deposited into a Nafion Membrane,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C .2007, 111, 8128-8134.

[15] Diaz R., Arbiol J., Sanz F., and Morante J. R., “Electroless Addition of Platinum To SnO2 Nanopowders”. Chem. Mater. 2002, 14, 3277 -3283.

[16] Sheppard S., Campbell S. A., Smith J. R., Lloyd G. W., Ralph T. R., and Walsh F. C., “Electrochemical and Microscopic Charac-terization of Platinum-coated Perfluoro-sulfonic acid (Nafion 117) Materials”. The Analyst. 1998, 123, 1923-1929.