The rheological properties of four different Kuwaiti crude oils in the presence of polyacrylamide (PAA) were investigated. PAA was varied at three different concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 ppm to study the viscoelastic properties in the untreated samples. Four different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 °C) were used to evaluate different viscoelastic parameters of the treated and untreated Kuwaiti crude oils. The sulfur content and physical properties; such as, density and refractive index of Kuwaiti crude oils were also measured.
An important observation noted from the rheological analysis is that the dynamic viscoelastic parameters like complex modulus, elastic modulus, and storage modulus were found to be a function of the amount of sulfur present in the crude oil. The most important observation noted is that PAA acts as a drag reducing agent in lowering the viscosity, shear stress, and all the viscoelastic parameters of the Kuwaiti crude oil. Carreau model was used in this investigation to determine the relaxation time and the shear thinning characteristics of the treated and untreated crude oil samples at different temperatures.
Herh P. K., Mai B. C., Roye N., and Hedmann K., “Rheology of Crude Oil at High Pressure,” Am. Lab., 2003, 9, 28-30.
Asma E., “Microbial Treatment of Waxy Crude Oil for Migration of Wax Precipitation,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering, 2007, 55, 111-121.
Johnsen E. E. and Ronningsen H. P., “Viscosity of Live Water-in-Crude-Oil Emulsions: Experimental Work and Validation of Correlations,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering, 2003, 38, 23–36.
Sjoblom J., Aske N., Auflem I. H., Brandal, O., and et al., “Our Current Understanding of Water in Crude Oil Emulsions, Recent Characterization Techniques and High Pressure Performance,” Journal of Colloid Interface Science, 2002, 100-102, 399-473.
Groffe D., Takhar S., Anderson S. I., Stenby E. H., et al., “A Waxy Inhibition Solution to Problematic Fields: A Chemical Remediation Process,” Petroleum Science & Technology, 2001, 19, 205-217.
Yaghi B. M., and Al-Bemani A., “Heavy Crude Oil Viscosity Reduction for Pipeline Transportation,” Ener. Sources, 2002, 24, 93-102.
Centeno G., Sanchez-Reyna G., Ancheyta J., Munoz J., et al., “Testing Various Mixing Rules for Calculation of Viscosity of Petroleum Blends,” Fuel, 2011, 90, 3561–3570.
Castro L. V. and Vazquez F., “Fractionation and Characterization of Mexican Crude Oils,” Energy and Fuel, 2009, 23, 1603–1609.
Murillo-Hernandez J., Garcia-Cruz I., Lopez-Ramirez S., Duran-Valencia C. et al., ”Aggregation Behavior of Heavy Crude Oil-Ionic Liquid Solutions by Fluorescence Spectroscopy,” Energy and Fuel, 2009, 23, 4584–4592.
Evdokimov I. N., Eliseev N. Y., and Eliseev D. Y., “Rheological Evidence of Structural Phase Transitions in Asphaltene-containing Petroleum Fluids,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering, 2001, 30, 199–211.
Pal R. and Rhodes E., “Viscosity/Concentration Relationships for Emulsions,” J. Rheol., 1989, 33, 1021–1045.
Ghannam M. T. and Esmail N., “Flow Enhancement of Medium-Viscosity Crude Oil,” J. Pet. Sci. Technol., 2006, 24, 985-999.
Feustel M., Oshmann H. J., and Kentsche U., “Additives Based on Component Present in Petroleum for Improving the Cold Flow Properties of Crude and Distillate Oils,” 2004, U.S. Patent No. 4728412.
Banerjee S., Kumar R., Mandal A., and Naiya T. K., “Use of Novel Natural Surfactant for Improving Flowability of Indian Heavy Crude Oil,” Pet. Sci. Technol., 2015, 33, 819-826.
Kumar R., Mohapatra S., Mandal A., and Naiya T. K., “Studies on the Effects of Surfactants on Rheology of Synthetic Crude,” J. Pet. Sci. Res., 2014, 3, 90-99.
Rasha A., Atta A., and Kabel K., “Modified Maleic Anhydride-Co-Octadecane as Flow Improver for Waxy Egyptian Crude Oil,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering, 2014, 122, 411-419.
Yang F., Li C., Yang S., Zhang Q. et al., “Effect of Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid (DBSA) and Lauric Amine (LA) on the Associating State and Rheology of Heavy Oils,” Journal of Petroleum Science & Engineering, 2014, 124, 19-26.
Hasan S. W., Ghannam M. T., and Nabil E., “Heavy Crude Oil Viscosity Reduction and Rheology for Pipe-Line Transportation,” Fuel, 2010, 89, 1095-1100.